These Lost Cities were once inhabited, real, prosperous and populated areas whose location has eventually lost over the period of time. These sites of cities most interest scientists and archeologists. Some extensive studies have been carried out at most of these places as to know more about the people, culture, lifestyle of these civilizations. These lost cities can be categorized into three types.
They are :
1. No knowledge of the city untill rediscovered.
2. They existed in legends and myths but the actual location was lost.
3. their existence and location have been known, but they are no longer inhabited.
Lost Cities of India
Dholavira , Gujarat :
It is one of the most prominent and largest archeological site in India. The site belongs to Indus Valley Civilization. The site is locally known as Kotada Timba Prachin Mahanagar Dholavira. The Dholavira site was discovered by J.P. Joshi in the year 1967 – 68. It is the fifth largest Harappan site in the Indian subcontinent. The site has been under excavation almost continuously since 1990 by the Archaeological Survey of India. The excavation of the site brought in light the sophisticated planning and organized architecture of the area. The site includes reservoirs, step well, and various other antiquities such as seals, beads, animal bones, gold, silver, terracotta ornaments and vessels.
The Vijaynagar city is located on south bank of the Tungabhadra River in Bellary District, northern Karnataka. Vijaynagar city was built around a religious center of the Virupaksha temple at Hampi. The site is know listed in UNESCO’s World Heritage site as “the Ruins of Hampi.” The ruins are now in danger because of excessive vehicular pollution and construction. It is know listed as a “threatened” World Heritage Site. It was once an important center of the Vijayanagara empire who ruled over most of the Southern India.
Poompuhar, Tamil Nadu
The Ancient city of Poompuhar was once a flourishing port city known as Kaveripattinam,which for a while served as the capital of the early Chola kings in Tamilakkam. Located on the mouth of the Kaveri river, much of the town was washed away by a powerful sea storm in 500 AD. Later pottery dating back to 4th and 5th century was discovered on the shore of the town.
Muziris is another ancient lost city of India located on the banks of river Periyar in Kerala. Muziris is believed to be an internationally acclaimed ancient port city of India, as archeologists have discovered various artifacts belonging to countries like Egypt, Yemen, Roman and West Asia. The excavation carried out from 2004 – 2009 revealed about the exact location of the place.
Located on the the west coast of India, Lothal is one of the most important city of Indus Valley Civilization. The city was discovered in 1954 and the excavation started in 1955. The massive structures of the city have been badly damaged by floods and other decaying process, however dwarfed walls, platforms, wells, drains, baths and paved floors are still visible.
It is a small town located in Hanumangarh district of Rajasthan. The excavation of the city started in 1969. Kalibangan was a major provincial capital of the Indus Valley Civilization. Kalibangan is distinguished by its unique fire altars and “world’s earliest attested ploughed field”. B. B. Lal, former DG of ASI, said : “Kalibangan in Rajasthan has given the evidence of the earliest (ca. 2800 BC) ploughed agricultural field ever revealed through an excavation.”
Surkotada is another archeological site located in Gujarat about 160 km (99 mi) north-east of Bhuj, in the district of Kutch. It contains horse remains dated to ca. 2000 BCE. These mounds are surrounded by clustered undulating rising ground. These mounds are covered with red laterite soil that gives it a reddish brown color. The mound was discovered in 1964 by Shri Jagat Pati Joshi of the Archaeological Survey of India.
Dawarka is among the most sacred and holy cities of India. Dawarka is the legendary city and dwelling place of Lord Krishna. It is believed that due to damage and destruction by the sea, Dvaraka has submerged six times and modern day Dwarka is therefore the seventh such city to be built in the area. Much of the town was submerged in sea and the fossils have been found in Bet Dwarka. In the sea lies the ruins of the city which include huge pillars, gigantic stone walls, and other antiques.
Pattadakal is a small village in Karnataka located on the banks of Malaprabha River in Bagalkot district. It is now a World Heritage site and a very popular tourist destination. It is famous for its ancient temples and other historic monuments. The best known is the Virupaksha temple, built by Queen Lokamahadevi (Trilokyamahadevi) in 745 to commemorate her husband’s victory (Vikramaditya II) over the Pallavas of Kanchi.